- Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
Topics covered are :
Nature of matter, Laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
- Structure of Atom
Structure of Atom
Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, Atomic number, Isotopes and Isobars. Thomson's model and its limitations. Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light,
de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
- Classification of Elements
Classification of Elements
Topics covered are :
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
- Chemical Bonding
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond; polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, , geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s,p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules, hydrogen bond.
- States of Matter
States of Matter
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds Liquid State- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension
- Chemical Thermodynamics
Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of Thermodynamics
Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb's energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium-ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation, hydrolysis of salts, buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect
- Redox reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide -preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.
- Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals
Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals
1. Group 1 and Group 2 Elements
Electronic configuration, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.
2. Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:
Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogencarbonate, Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium. Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.